Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA)



Rienecker, M.M., M.J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M.G. Bosilovich, S.D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, et al. (2011), MERRA: NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. J. Climate, 24, 3624-3648, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1. Link.



Toure, A. M., R. H. Reichle, B. A. Forman, A. Getirana, and G. J. M. De Lannoy, 2018, Assimilation of MODIS Snow Cover Fraction Observations into the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model, Remote Sensing, 10, 316, doi:10.3390/rs10020316.


Noble, E., L. M. Druyan, M. Fulakeza, 2014: The Sensitivity of WRF Daily Summertime Simulations over West Africa to Alternative Parameterizations. Part I: African Wave Circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 1588–1608. doi: Link

Lindsay, R., M. Wensnahan, A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, 2014: Evaluation of Seven Different Atmospheric Reanalysis Products in the Arctic*. J. Climate, 27, 2588–2606. doi: Link


Bosilovich, Michael G. (2013), Regional Climate and Variability of NASA MERRA and Recent Reanalyses: U.S. Summertime Precipitation and Temperature, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 1939–1951. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0291.1 Link

Tilinina, N., S. K. Gulev, I. Rudeva and P. Koltermann (2013), Comparing Cyclone Life Cycle Characteristics and Their Interannual Variability in Different Reanalyses, J. Climate, 26, 6419–6438. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00777.1 Link

Bosilovich. M., M. Rixen and A Chaudhuri (2013), Earth System Reanalysis: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities, Brief Conference report, Bull. AMS. doi: 0.1175/BAMS-D-12-00191.1 Link

Kim, J.-E. and M. J. Alexander (2013), Tropical Precipitation Variability and Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves on Submonthly Time Scales in Reanalyses and TRMM, J. Climate, 26, 3013-3030. doi: 0.1175/JCLI-D-12-00353.1 Link.

Ham, Y.-G., J.-S. Kug, J.-Y. Park, and F.-F. Jin (2013), Sea surface temperature in the north tropical Atlantic as a trigger for El Niño/Southern Oscillation events, Nat. Geoscience, 6, 112–116. doi:10.1038/NGEO1686. Link.

Wang, A. and X. Zeng (2013), Development of global hourly 0.5-degree land surface air temperature datasets, Journal of Climate, in press, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00682.1Link.

Wang, K. and R. E. Dickinson (2013), Global atmospheric downward longwave radiation at the surface from ground-based observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalyses, Rev. Geophys., 51, doi:10.1002/rog.20009. Link.


Bracegirdle, T.J., and G. J. Marshall (2012), The Reliability of Antarctic Tropospheric Pressure and Temperature in the Latest Global Reanalyses. J. Climate, 25, 7138-7146. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00685.1. Link.

Fujiwara, M., J. Suzuki, A. Gettelman, M. I. Hegglin, H. Akiyoshi, and K. Shibata (2012), Wave activity in the tropical tropopause layer in seven reanalysis and four chemistry climate model data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12105, doi:10.1029/2011JD016808. Link.

Gunturu, U. B. and C. A. Schlosser (2012), Characterization of wind power resource in the United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9687-9702, doi:10.5194/acp-12-9687-2012. Link.

Hofer, M., B. Marzeion, and T. Molg (2012), Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for daily air temperature on a glaciated mountain (Peru), Clim. Dyn., 39, 1969-1980 doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1501-2. Link.

Holmes, T. R. J., T. J. Jackson, R. H. Reichle, and J. B. Basara (2012), An Assessment of Surface Soil Temperature Products from Numerical Weather Prediction Models Using Ground-based Measurements, Water Resources Research, 48, W02531, doi:10.1029/2011WR010538. Link.

Hosoda, K. (2012), Local phase relationship between sea surface temperature and net heat flux over weekly to annual periods in the extratropical North Pacific, J. Oceanog., 68, 5, 671-685 doi:10.1007/s10872-012-0127-7. Link.

Huang, L., Fu, R., Jiang, J. H., Wright, J. S., and Luo, M. (2012), Geographic and seasonal distributions of CO transport pathways and their roles in determining CO centers in the upper troposphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4683-4698, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4683-2012. Link.

Kim, Y.-H., and M.-K. Kim (2012), Examination of the global lorenz energy cycle using MERRA and NCEP-reanalysis 2. Clim. Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1358-4. Link.

Lorenz, C., and J. Kunstmann (2012), The Hydrological Cycle in Three State-of-the-art Reanalyses: Intercomparison and Performance Analysis, J. Hydrometeor., 13, 1397-1420, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-088.1. Link.

Petrov, L. (2012), The EVN Galactic Plane Survey - EGaPS, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 419, 1097-1106, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19765.x. Link.

Salamanca, F., S. Tonse, S. Menon, V.Garg, K. P. Singh, M. Naja, and M. L. Fischer (2012), Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation. Environ. Res. Lett. 7,4, 044007. Link.

Schenkel, B. A. and R. E. Hart (2012), An Examination of Tropical Cyclone Position and Intensity Differences within Atmospheric Reanalysis Datasets. J. Climate, 25, 3453-3475, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4208.1. Link

Schoeberl, M. R., Dessler, A. E., and Wang, T. (2012), Simulation of stratospheric water vapor and trends using three reanalyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6475-6487, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6475-2012. Link.

Seefeldt, Mark W., Thomas M. Hopson, Thomas T. Warner (2012), A Characterization of the Variation in Relative Humidity across West Africa during the Dry Season, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 2077.2089, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0196.1. Link.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, and J. Stroeve (2012), Recent changes in tropospheric water vapor over the Arctic as assessed from radiosondes and atmospheric reanalyses, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10104, doi:10.1029/2011JD017421. Link.

Vellinga, M., A. Arribas, and R. Graham (2012), Seasonal forecasts for regional onset of the West African monsoon. Clim. Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1520-z. Link.

Wang, Aihui and Zeng, Xubin (2012), Evaluation of multireanalysis products with in situ observations over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D5, D05102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016553. Link.


Bosilovich, M. G., F. Robertson and J. Chen (2011), Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA. J. Climate, 24, 5721-5739, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4175.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Brunke, M.A., Z. Wang, X. Zeng, M. Bosilovich, C.-L. Shie, 2011: An assessment of the uncertainties in ocean surface turbulent fluxes in 11 reanalysis, satellite-derived, and combined global data sets. J. Climate, 24, 5469-5493, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4223.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Cullather, R. I., M. Bosilovich (2011), The Energy Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA. J. Climate, 25, 1, 5-24. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4138.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Cullather, R. I., M. Bosilovich (2011), The Moisture Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA. J. Climate, 24, 2861-2879, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI4090.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Decker, M., M. Brunke, Z. Wang, K. Sakaguchi, X. Zeng, and M.G. Bosilovich, 2011: Evaluation of the reanalysis products from NCEP, ECMWF, and NASA using flux tower observations. J. Climate, 25, 1916-1944, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00004.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Gregg, W.W. and Casey, N. 2011. Global Ocean Carbon Estimates in a Model Forced by MERRA. Submitted to J. Climate (submitted). Document · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Gunturu, U.B. and C. A. Schlosser (2011), Characterization of Wind Power Resource in the United States and its Intermittency, Joint Program Report Series (December 2011), 65 pages. available at:

Harnik, N., J. Perlwitz, and T. Shaw, 2011: Observed decadal changes in downward wave coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 24, 2558-4569. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Hurwitz, M. M., Newman, P. A., and Garfinkel, C. I. (2011), The Arctic vortex in March 2011: a dynamical perspective, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11447-11453, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11447-2011. Link.

Hurwitz, M. M., Song, I.-S., Oman, L. D., Newman, P. A., Molod, A. M., Frith, S. M., and Nielsen, J. E.: Response of the Antarctic stratosphere to warm pool El Niño Events in the GEOS CCM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9659-9669, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9659-2011. Link.

Jimenez, C., and Coauthors (incl. R. H. Reichle) (2011), Global inter-comparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116, D02102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014545. Abstract.

Kennedy, A.D., X. Dong, B. Xi, S. Xie, Y. Zhang, and J. Chen, 2011: A Comparison of MERRA and NARR Reanalysis Datasets with the DOE ARM SGP Continuous Forcing data. J. Climate, 24, 4541-4557. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Lee, M.-I., S. D. Schubert, and D. Kim, 2011: Representation of tropical storms in the Northwestern Pacific by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 245-253, doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0013-z. Link.

Liu, Q., R. H. Reichle, R. Bindlish, M. H. Cosh, W. T. Crow, R. de Jeu, G. J. M. De Lannoy, G. J. Huffman, and T. J. Jackson (2011), The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates in a land data assimilation system, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12, 750-765, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1. Abstract.

Mueller, B., and Coauthors (incl. R. H. Reichle) (2011), Evaluation of global observations-based evapotranspiration datasets and IPCC AR4 simulations, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L06402, doi:10.1029/2010GL046230. Abstract.

Petrov, L., C. Phillips, T. Tzioumis, B. Stansby, C. Reynolds, H. E. Bignall, S. Gulyaev, T. Natusch, N. Palmer, D. Collett, J. E. Reynolds, S. W. Amy, R. Wayth, S. J. Tingay (2011), First geodetic observations using new VLBI stations ASKAP-29 and WARK12M, Publ. Astronom. Soc. Australia28, 107-116, doi:10.1071/AS10048. Link.

Petrov, L., C., Phillips, A. Bertarini, T. Murphy, E. M. Sadler (2011), The LBA Calibrator Survey of southern compact extragalactic radio sources — LCS1, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 414, 2528-2539, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18570.x. Link.

L. Petrov, Y. Y. Kovalev, E. B. Fomalont, D. Gordon (2011), The VLBA Galactic Plane Survey — VGaPS, Astron. J., 142, 35, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/142/2/35. Link.

Reichle, R.H., R.D. Koster, G.J.M. De Lannoy, B.A. Forman, Q. Liu, S. Mahanama, and A. Toure. 2011. Assessment and Enhancement of MERRA Land Surface Hydrology Estimates. J. Climate, 24, 6322-6338, doi: Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Rienecker, M.M., M.J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M.G. Bosilovich, S.D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, et al. (2011), MERRA - NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. J. Climate, 24, 3624-3648, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1. Link. · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Roberts, J.B., F. R. Robertson, C. A. Clayson, and M. G. Bosilovich, 2011: Characterization of turbulent latent and sensible heat flux exchange between the atmosphere and ocean in MERRA. J. Climate, 25, 821-838, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00029.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Robertson, F. R., M. Bosilovich, J. Chen, and T. Miller (2011), The Effect of Satellite Observing System Changes on MERRA Water and Energy Fluxes. J. Climate, 24, 5197-5217, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4227.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Sakazaki, T., M. Fujiwara, X. Zhang, M. E. Hagan, and J. M. Forbes (2012), Diurnal tides from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere as deduced from TIMED/SABER satellite data and six global reanalysis data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D13108, doi:10.1029/2011JD017117. Link.

Schoeberl, M. R. and Dessler, A. E. (2011), Dehydration of the stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8433-8446, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8433-2011. Link.

Schubert, S., H. Wang and M. Suarez (2011), Warm Season Subseasonal Variability and Climate Extremes in the Northern Hemisphere: The Role of Stationary Rossby Waves. J. Climate, 24, 4773-4792, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05035.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Shaw, T., J. Perlwitz, N. Harnik, P. Newman, and S. Pawson, 2011: The impact of stratospheric ozone changes on downward wave coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 24, 4210-4229, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4170.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Trenberth, Kevin E., John T. Fasullo, Jessica Mackaro (2011), Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses. J. Climate, 24, 4907-4924. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4171.1. Link.

Wong, S., E.J. Fetzer, B.H. Kahn, B. Tian, B. H. Lambrigtsen, and H. Ye, 2011: Closing the Global Water Budget with AIRS Water Vapor, MERRA Winds and Evaporation, and TRMM Precipitation. J. Climate, 24, 6307-6321, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4154.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Wu, M.-L. C., O. Reale, S. Schubert, M. Suarez, and C. Thorncroft (2011), African Easterly Jet: barotropic instability, waves and cyclogenesis. J. Climate, 25, 1489-1510, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4241.1. Link · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]

Yi, Y., J. Kimball, L. Jones, R. Reichle, K. McDonald (2011), Evaluation of MERRA land surface estimates in preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission. J. Climate, 24, 3797-3816, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4034.1. Link. · [Part of AMS MERRA Special Collection]


Dessler, A.E. (2010), A determination of the cloud feedback from climate variations over the past decade. Science, 330, 1523-1527, doi:10.1126/science.1192546. Link.

Jordan, N. S., R. M. Hoff, and J. T. Bacmeister (2010), Validation of Goddard Earth Observing System–version 5 MERRA planetary boundary layer heights using CALIPSO, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24218, doi:10.1029/2009JD013777. Link.


Bosilovich, M. (2008), NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications: Integrating Earth Observations. Earthzine. E-Zine Article

Bosilovich, M., Chen, J., Robertson, F. R., and Adler, R. F. (2008), Evaluation of Global Precipitation in Reanalyses. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 2279-2299, doi:10.1175/2008JAMC1921.1. Link.


Rienecker, M.M., D. Dee, J. Woollen, G.P. Compo, K. Onogi, R. Gelaro, M.G. Bosilovich, A. da Silva, S. Pawson, S. Schubert, M. Suarez, D. Barker, H. Kamahori, R. Kistler, and S. Saha (2012), Atmospheric Reanalyses — Recent Progress and Prospects for the Future. A Report from a Technical Workshop, April 2010. NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, NASA TM—2012-104606, 29. Document, Reduced size version

Legler, D., R. Dole (2011), Identifying Challenges and Opportunities for Earth System Reanalyses, Eos Trans. AGU, 92, 172, doi:10.1029/2011EO200006. Link.


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